IELTS MASTER | ielts general reading test 75

ielts general reading test 75

BPA – The Backpackers’ Alliance

The leading hostel network for independent travellers

What is BPA?
It is the largest group of backpacker-style accommodation providers in the state – these are state-owned and operated so they all meet rigid criteria for health and safety.

BPA Accommodation: We have over 200 listings to give you the best chance of finding the most suitable accommodation where you are most likely to enjoy it and that could be in the mountains, by the sea, in the bush, in the centre of a bustling city – almost anywhere in the state!

BPA prices are always the lowest – order your BPA Accommodation Guide now and check it out!

Membership: Join BPA and enjoy the benefits of registration. which include access to a variety of popular options:

• BPA online bookings
• Secure telephone bookings (you will NOT need to risk giving out your credit card details over the phone)
• Rating details (one to four stars) on all BPC accommodation

You will also receive your BPA Club Card, which gives you

• Preferential regular-user rates – once you have used our service 10 tunes, you become a loyal customer and enjoy an 8% discount on all bookings
• A $5 rebate on all online bookings (accommodation only)
• Guaranteed fixed prices (non-members must pay a higher ‘casual’ rate which can change without notice)
• Deals and discounts on transport and activities (if booked through our website)

Remember: Registration is free – there are no hidden fees or commissions. However. there is a $20 processing fee for replacement of a lost or stolen card.

Working holiday: BPA can assist you with this. We can advise you on travel, insurance, what to pack and what to expect. We can also help you find work close to the hostel of your choice by setting up interviews with local employers_ We’ll also arrange for you to attend at least one social event where you can meet fellow travellers and some of the residents from the area.

Questions 1-7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text? In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the Information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

1. The BPA hostels are managed by independent owners.
2. You can find BPA hostels in many different environments.
3. BPA hostels have the cheapest accommodation anywhere in the state.
4. Online bookings are more popular than telephone bookings.
5. BPA members who frequently use the hostels pay less than the normal fee.
6. There is an initial $20 registration fee.
7. Local employers prefer to hire casual employees through BPA.

Read the text below and answer questions 8-14.

Applying for a Driver’s Licence

Person Vehicle Licences: All applicants will have to show two forms of identification and pass an eye exam. There also is a compulsory driving course, the cost of which must be borne by the driver. Special licences of this class include:

• Provisional Licence: For ages 16 to 18. Drivers on this licence are subject to several restrictions. Drivers must not drive after 8 pm. and are required to have a fully-licensed adult in the car at all times. The driver may apply to transfer to a full licence after attaining 18 years of age, provided he or she has a clean record.
• Motorcycle Licence: An optional extension course on defensive driving is recommended for drivers with this type of licence. This can reduce insurance premiums. Not all motorized two-wheel vehicles classify as motorcycles. Scooters. for example, do not require this licence. but note that these vehicles are restricted from riding on main roads and highways.

Commercial Licences:
• Livery Licences: Anyone planning to use their vehicle as a taxi or a limousine will require this licence. Applicants must have a personal vehicle licence, which they must surrender upon receipt of the new licence. This licence also requires renewal every two years. Drivers are required to display a registration plate to indicate that they are legally allowed to accept passengers.
• Commercial vehicle licences: These include:
o City buses (single or coupled)
o School buses
o Lorries (single or coupled)

All licences for commercial vehicles require a probation period, after which the full licence will be issued. Application for such a vehicle licence will require proof of training, proof of insurance and a mandatory fee, which can usually be claimed back once employment is found.

Questions 8-14

Complete the sentences below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 8-14 on your answer sheet.

8. People who want a personal vehicle licence must pay for a……………..
9. A teenager must have a…………… get a full licence at 18 years old.
10. Motorcycle drivers who attend a special class can get a discount on their……………….
11. People who ride……………..on back roads or off-road do not need a licence.
12. People who drive a………………..or……………..need a livery licence.
13. Anyone who charges money for driving people in a private car must show a special…………… 14. Commercial drivers have to wait for a…………… get their full licence.

Section 2: Questions 15-27
Read the text below and answer questions 15-20.

Becoming an employer

Running a small business is a rewarding but challenging endeavour, and one of the major challenges is hiring staff once your business starts to grow.

What kind of employee would suit your business needs? You’ll need to evaluate the typical workload your business operates under, and whether this work is steady. Permanent staff can be employed full or part time. but you’ll need to ensure that there is ongoing work into the foreseeable future and that your business can take on the further cost of entitlements such as sick leave, annual leave and parental leave. As an employer, you’ll be legally required to provide these, as well as health and safety training. You’ll need to specify their hours of work, wages and details of their role in advance, and prepare a contract for both parties to sign.

Your business may not be ready to take on such a long-term responsibility, especially if you only require help during big projects or holiday rushes. In this case you might consider hiring a fixed-term employee. Remember, though, that after a certain number of fixed-term contracts with the same employee, the law requires you to make the position permanent. If you are not sure how long the term of employment will be, construct the contract carefully to ensure you can terminate the employee at any time, allowing the legally-required two weeks notice of course.

Alternatively, you could take on a casual worker, who can be employed on an ad-hoc basis, covering just the days that you cannot manage alone, though you’ll need to offer a higher hourly rate called casual loading, to compensate for the lack of regularity.

If your current budget does not permit hiring another member of staff, you could consider using an intern. However, interns are not just a source of free labour. You must be able to provide experience that benefits them in some way, such as by learning a new skill. Agreements of this sort can legally extend to 12 months, but, while you will have to stipulate the duration of the internship. the interns themselves are permitted to resign at any time without giving notice.

All workers must be given a contract, no matter whether they are permanent, fixed-term, casual or even interns.

Questions 15-20

Look at the following statements and the list of employee types below. Match each statement with the correct type A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter A, B, C or D, in boxes 15-20 on your answer sheet.

15. They cannot work for more than one year.
16 They get a paid holiday every year.
17 They can leave without warning.
18 You can finish their contract early if you give warning.
19 They usually get higher wages.
20 This kind of employee is best for seasonal work

Employee types
A permanent employees
B fixed-term employees
C casual employees
D interns

Read the text below and answer questions 21-27.

Office Politics

A Office politics concern differences that arise between employees – differences of opinion and conflicts of interest. Good communication is the best way to deal with office politics. A natural reaction to disputes at work is to defend yourself and fight for what you want, but the typical response to that stance is resistance, which achieves nothing. However, if you flee from conflict and don’t take a stand, you will be seen as a pushover. Although both fight and flight are instinctive reactions, it is best not to be impulsive but rather to carefully consider how you feel and decide how you will react.

B There is a temptation to focus on the differences – of employees’ positions or opinions – but try to concentrate on business objectives instead and discuss the problem with these in mind. After all, everyone wants to work for a successful company, so put petty disagreements aside and look at the big picture.

C Sometimes issues arise which workers have little control over, for example company policies, customer demands or directives from management. It is easy to get caught up in an endless round of complaint, but this rarely if ever solves these outside problems. Be realistic about what you can actually influence at work, and don’t put your focus on insoluble problems.

D Occasionally you will find yourself caught between two powerful individuals in contention. Do not get drawn into the conflict by supporting one or the other. Remain neutral and objective and try to keep the discussion focused on the interests of the organisation.

E When office politics erupt, avoid angry outbursts and never direct your rage towards a particular person. This will only provoke negative feelings towards you, possibly harming your chances of advancement or promotion later.

F If you try to identify and comprehend the position of other parties first, you will gain their trust and open up communication because they will feel less defensive. Using this technique will facilitate a swifter solution to the problem.

G People don’t like to lose. It is humiliating. Outcomes of a conflict at work where there is a loser and a winner are generally not beneficial for either the individuals involved or for the company, so it is better to find a resolution which is acceptable to both parties. It is better to have allies than enemies.

Questions 21-27
The text has seven sections, A-G. Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 21-27 on your answer sheet.

21. Section A
22. Section B
23. Section C
24. Section D
25. Section E
26. Section F
27. Section G

List of Headings
i Don’t waste energy on things you can’t change
ii Trust your natural responses
iii Understand before being understood
iv Never accept a loss
v Know what is best for business
vi Think win-win
vii Don’t take sides
viii Realise you have a choice
ix Take a stand on every issue
x Don’t get personal

Section 3: Questions 28-40
Read the text below and answer questions 28-40.

Shark Deterrent Wetsuits

A The words ‘shark attack’ stroke fear in beachgoers – surfers, swimmers, driers and others who enjoy a dip in the ocean. After seven people died from fatal attacks off the coast of Western Austral.; (WA) between 2010 and 2013, the state government reacted by capturing and shooting large sharks (of the great white, tiger and bull varieties) near swimming beaches. This shark culling policy caused an outcry amongst environmentalists.

B The existence of the white shark is already threatened; it is at a ‘vulnerable’ status – at high risk of becoming an endangered species. For this reason, it is fully protected in some counties, but the WA government had this species made exempt from protection in Australia, despite there being no scientific evidence to suggest an increase in white shark numbers.

C Sharks are apex predators, key to maintaining the balance of prey populations by removing sick or weak individuals and regulating the well-being of the marine ecosystem. They are very slow to reproduce and, with about 100 million sharks being killed every year as a result of fishing and hunting, the global population has been reduced by more than 70% in the last twenty years. The WA government policy of killing large sharks takes out the mature breeding stock of the species, hastening the eventual extinction.

D Protesters argue that the culling is extreme and unnecessary because the actual risk of death by shark is very slim, and the practice of tagging sharks and equipping them with transmitters is enough to alert swimmers when sharks are near. When a tagged shark come within one kilometre of a beach it ‘tweets’ a message (via the Surf Lifesaving WA Twitter feed) giving its type (e.g. bull shark), location, date and tens.

E Scientists at Shark Attack Mitigation Systems (SANS), in collaboration with the Oceans Institute at the University of Western Australia, have cane up with a novel and pragmatic solution to the shark problem: a shark deterrent wetsuit. The good news is that it is simple, affordable, and the technology can also be applied to surfboards. The scientific breakthrough came about after observation of how other species protect themselves from shark attacks. In this research, particular attention was given to the pilot fish, which has a mutualistic association with sharks, swimming alongside them devoting their harmful parasites and keeping them clean. The pilot fish are relatively small (about 30-60 cm) and are easily recognised by their patterning. This consists of five to seven transverse bands of a darker colour than the rest of the body, which is dark blue or blackish-silver. These bands are also seen on the poisonous banded sea snake. Folklore claims that some Pacific island tribes used to paint themselves in bands to simulate the appearance of this snake and thus to ward off the shark gods.

F It is known that sharks use a range of sensors when they prepare for attack, but apparently the sight sensor is what they use to identify their target, especially when they get close up. Experts in shark vision and shark neurology confirmed that sharks see in black and white, or greyscale. The SAMS scientists, in collaboration with others, then mapped the physical characteristics of the eyes of the three main predatory sharks, genetically and anatomically. Next, they used complex computer modelling to figure out what the shark’s eye could see at different depths and distances, and in different light situations and water clarity conditions. From that, they were able to identify what patterns and shapes would essentially “hide” a potential target or at least create confusion for the shark; and what patterns and shapes might break up the profile of a person so that he was not mistaken for shark prey.

G Once the science was converted into practical wetsuit design, two ideas emerged. The first model, using the banding concept, presents a highly disruptive profile to the shark, and depicts the wearer as dangerous and unpalatable. This one is suitable for swimmers/surfers on the surface where they would otherwise provide a tempting, backlit silhouette. The second model, the cryptic wetsuit, consists of three panels on the suit, one or more matching the reflective spectra of the water and the other creating a confusing profile. This one is better suited to scuba enthusiasts, making them virtually indiscernible in the water column.

H It was very difficult to test these wetsuits because, for obvious reasons, the researchers could not use humans or even humanoid shapes as bait. Therefore, they wrapped perforated drums full of bait in the newly designed neoprene skins and used underwater cameras to watch how the sharks interacted with the prototype. As a control model, they used a rig wrapped in plain black neoprene just like a normal wetsuit. They were able to record a tiger shark circling and hunting the test rig for six minutes, trying to find what it could smell and sense but not see. Then the shark gave up and ripped into the control rig as soon as it encountered it. They watched a great white shark encounter a control rig, go to the bottom, then come straight up and strike it, whereas it was more apprehensive and reluctant to go for the test rig.

I It is hoped that these shark-deterrent designs, by disrupting a shark’s visual perception, will protect swimmers either by deterring attack or at least delaying it sufficiently to allow the user time to get out of the water.

Questions 28-36
The text has nine paragraphs, A-I. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 28-36 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once.

28. an example of water sport equipment that can use the new wetsuit design
29. details of the trials carried out on the new wetsuits
30. findings of scientists investigating sharks’ perception
31. how beachgoers can be warned of the presence of sharks
32. the importance of sharks in keeping fish stocks healthy
33. statistics that triggered a shark-killing response
34. the relationship between sharks and a different sea species
35. how the new wetsuits work as shark deterrents
36. an explanation of why sharks are in danger of extinction

Questions 37-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text? In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the Information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

37. A deep sea diver wearing a cryptic wetsuit is almost invisible to sharks.
38. Sharks do not regard banded wetsuits as good to eat.
39. The tiger shark waited before attacking the control rig.
40. Great white sharks have more confidence than tiger sharks.

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