IELTS MASTER | Writing

Writing

SUMMARIZE WRITTEN TEXT
Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

Most sea creatures, from whales and dolphins to fish, sharks, shrimps and possibly even anemones respond to sound, and many can produce it. They use it to hunt and to hide, find mates and food, form and guide shoals, navigate ‘blind’, send messages and transmit warnings, establish territories, warn off competitors, stun prey, deceive predators, and sense changes in water and conditions.
Marine animals click bones and grind teeth; use drum-tight bladders and special sonic organs to chirp, grunt, and boom: belch gases; and vibrate special organs. Far from the ‘silent deep’, the oceans are a raucous babel.
Into this age-long tumult, in the blink of an evolutionary eye, has entered a new thunder: the throb of mighty engines as 46,220 large vessels plough the world’s shipping lanes. Scientists say that background noise in the ocean has increased roughly by 15 decibels in the past 50 years. It may not sound like much in overall terms; but it is enough, according to many marine biologists, to mask the normal sounds of ocean life going about its business. At its most intense, some even say noise causes whales to become disoriented, dolphins to develop ‘the bends’, fish to go deaf, flee their breeding grounds or fail to form shoals – enough to disrupt the basic biology of two thirds of the planet.
‘Undersea noise pollution is like the death of a thousand cuts’, says Sylvia Earle, chief scientist of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ‘Each sound in itself may not be a matter of critical concern, but taken all together, the noise from shipping, seismic surveys, and military activity is creating a totally different environment than existed even 50 years ago. That high level of noise is bound to have a hard, sweeping impact on life in the sea.’

 


 


 

SUMMARIZE WRITTEN TEXT
Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

Humans have been cultivating chillies for 6000 years, but we are still learning new things about the science behind their heat and how it reacts with our body. In the late 1990s, scientists identified the pain nerves that detect capsaicin: the chemical in chillies responsible for most of the burn. But it’s only during the last few years that scientists have also learnt why chillies evolved to be spicy in the first place, and they have managed to cultivate new varieties that are up to 300 times hotter than the common Jalapeno.

The hottest part of a chilli is not the seeds, as many people think, but the white flesh that houses the seeds, known as the placenta. But why did chillies evolve to be hot in the first place? Most scientists believe capsaicin acts mainly as a deterrent against would-be mammal predators such as rodents. But recent research suggests this may not be the whole story. US scientists working in Bolivia have studied how hot and mild chillies differ in their susceptibility to a certain harmful fungus. It turns out that the hotter the chilli, the better its defences against the fungus, leading the researchers to propose that heat may have evolved to help chillies deal with harmful microbes, as well as hungry mammals.

 


 


 

Write Essay

You will have 20 minutes to plan, write and revise an essay about the topic below. Your response will be judged on how well you develop a position, organize your ideas, present supporting details, and control the elements of standard written English. You should write 200-300 words.

Everyone should stay in school until they reach the age of 18. To what extent do you agree or disagree. Support your point of view with reason and/or examples from your own experience.


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