Read the prompt below. In 25 seconds, you must reply in your own words, as naturally and clearly as possible. You have 30 seconds to record your response. Your response will be sent together with your score report to the institutions selected by you. Please introduce yourself. For example, you could talk about one or more of the following:
You will hear some sentences. Please repeat each sentence exactly as you hear it. You will hear each sentence only once.
A You will hear a lecture. After listening to the lecture, please retell what you have just heard from the lecture in your own words. You will have 40 seconds to give your response.
Answer: Machiavelli lived from 1469 to 1527. The philosopher Bertrand Russell referred to Machiavelli's most well-known book, The Prince, as a “gangsters’ handbook”. And while there’s no doubt that certain people have read and used it as such, 1 think that if we put it into the context of when it was written, which was Italy, especially Florence, in the 15lh and 16th centuries, it will be easier to judge Machiavelli’s reasons for writing it. Now, the Italy of that period was made up of a number of city states, often at war with each other. Add to that threats from foreign powers, especially France, and it was a very unstable and dangerous situation. Machiavelli loved his home city, Florence, and wanted to protect its culture, history and above all independence at all costs. One way to do this was to establish an army of Florentines loyal to the city state of Florence. Much of Machiavelli’s career was taken up with this issue. It must be remembered, though, that he led an active civic life, was deeply into politics, and was an ambassador for Florence. In this way, he got to meet and observe some of the key players of the time and through this came to understand the nature of power and how to hold on to it. The Prince was an attempt to teach Florence the lessons he had learnt.
B You will hear a lecture. After listening to the lecture, please retell what you have just heard from the lecture in your own words. You will have 40 seconds to give your response.
Answer: There was a time when the subject of happiness was the business of philosophers, as part of their discussion of what makes for the good life. Then, much later, psychologists and sociologists got in on the act, and now, it seems, so has the government. I understand that governments should have the welfare and well-being of those it governs at heart from the purely practical point of view of keeping people quiet, at home enjoying their gadgets and comfort, rattier than on the streets rioting. But surely it’s not something you can legislate for. Today there are numerous journals on the topic and it is even included in the curriculum at some universities and colleges. Surveys are done, statistics compiled, graphs drawn, yet all they seem to "prove” is what most people have concluded themselves from personal experience. An obvious example would be that having a lot of money doesn’t necessarily make you happy. We all wish to be happy and have ideas about what it is we think would make us so. But we also know or suspect that it’s not that easy. Most of us learn that it is a by-product of something else, usually being totally absorbed or involved in some task or pastime, and can only be reached that way. These activities, of course, must be worthwhile in themselves.
You will hear some questions. Please give a simple and short Answer to each one. Often just one or a few words is enough.