IELTS MASTER | Test4 Reading

Reading

Multiple choice, choose single Answer

A Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

On meeting a person for the first time, our first question is often "What do you do?” That is, we ask what they do for a living, what their job is, because we feel this will help us place them. It helps us to define their status. We can judge where they stand socially, we can make a guess at how much they earn, and through that what kind of a standard of living they can afford. In addition, it can give us a fairly good idea of their educational background.
The problem is that people often choose a career for the wrong reasons. For instance, some people follow in the footsteps of a parent, either entering the same trade or profession, or inheriting the family business. Others make exactly the opposite decision, either out of a fierce desire for independence, or to spite a parent, or simply to get away from family. They decide that whatever else they might do, they will certainly not do what their mother or father did.
People may also persuade themselves to pursue a career for which they are unsuited out of hero-worship, or as a result of meeting people they admire. It is a pity that we have to make such an important decision about our future career at a stage in our lives when we are so easily influenced by factors which have little or nothing to do with the central issue, namely, that we should do those things for which we have a natural talent.

Which of the following is not given as an example of a wrong reason for choosing a career?


Answer

Answer: 2



B Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

Politically, the Roman Empire laid the foundations on which modem Europe was built. Culturally, partly through native genius and partly through absorbing the achievements of the older and richer culture of Greece, its literature became the basis of European values, in particular those values that arise out of the individual’s relationship to their society. Rome began to produce literature between 300 and 100 BC at about the same time as it was conquering the rich Greek colonies in the south of Italy.
Roman writers and orators began to expand their imaginative and intellectual horizons and refine the Latin language through the study of Greek literature. Early Roman literature had been basically of two kinds: the recording and examination of public life and behavior through life stories of famous men, and the particularly Roman art of satirical comedy and drama.
There were those, however, who objected to the Greek influence, most notably Cato the Censor, who did his best to uphold the virtues of no-nonsense Latin prose against Greek luxury. More typical, and in the end more successful, was the poet Ennius, who managed to keep a balance between Greek and Latin values by writing a Homeric epic poem in Latin idiom, but using Greek poetic metre.

According to the text, which of the following statements is true of ancient Roman literature?


Answer

Answer: 2



Multiple choice, choose multiple Answer

A Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

Before Luke Howard invented his system for classifying clouds, they had simply been described by their shape and color as each person saw them: they were too changeable and moved too quickly for anyone to think they could be classified in any useful way. Howard had been interested in clouds - and meteorology in general - ever since he was a small boy, and for thirty years kept a record of his meteorological observations. In 1802-1803, he produced a paper in which he named the clouds, or, to be more precise, classified them, claiming that it was possible to identify several simple categories within the various and complex cloud forms. As was standard practice for the classification of plant and animal species, they were given Latin names, which meant that the system could be understood throughout Europe.
Howard believed that all clouds belonged to three distinct groups; cumulus, stratus and cirrus. He added a fourth category, nimbus, to describe a cloud "in the act of condensation into rain, hail or snow”, it is by observing how clouds change color and shape that weather can be predicted, and as long as the first three types of cloud keep their normal shape there won't be any rain.
This system came to be used across the European continent, and in the 20th century his cloud classification system was adopted, with some additions, as the international standard, but that was not his only contribution to meteorology. He wrote papers on barometers and theories of rain, and what is probably the first textbook on weather. He can also be considered to be the father of what is now called "urban climatology”. Howard had realized that cities could significantly alter meteorological elements. One of these he called “city fog". Nowadays we call it "smog”, a combination of smoke and fog.

Which of the following achievements can be attributed to Luke Howard?


Answer

Answer: 3, 4, 6



B Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

When does a hobby or pastime, or whatever you want to call what you do in your leisure time for rest and relaxation, cease to be a hobby or a pastime and become something a bit more serious, such as something you realize can be turned into financial gain, or an obsession that can mess up your life as much as any other addiction? The whole point of them, of course, is that they are done out of personal interest and for pleasure and enjoyment, not for financial gain.
Most people’s hobbies turn out to be easy and stress-free pastimes such as collecting things, making things, sports, playing a musical instrument, reading, and so on. And - so it is claimed - they are good for you, too. Pursuing a hobby can have calming and helpful beneficial effects. For a start, it can take your mind off your problems, and the more interests you have, the more you enjoy life.
One way in which the subject becomes a little bit serious is when you are applying for a job and writing out your curriculum vitae, or resume. There’s invariably a section which asks what your outside interests are, and because getting a job is a serious business, and you want to impress your prospective employers, you might find yourself claiming that you like nothing better at weekends than being flown by helicopter to the top of the Alps and then making your way home by snowboard and hang-glider. Perhaps people find themselves doing this because they feel that applying for a job and coming across well at interview is a test of character and being an aficionado of extreme sports is a lot cooler than stamp collecting. But why turn what is supposed to be calming and relaxing into a cause for anxiety?

Which of the following statements are true about hobbies and pastimes, according to the text?


Answer

Answer: 2, 5



Re-order Paragraphs

A The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.

Jumbled paragraphs Correct paragraph order (1-4)
A By 1817, trousers were shoe-length. Popular with the king, they became accepted as standard daywear by 1825 and were worn with a waistcoat and, by day, a frock coat, but with a tailcoat in the evening.
B Jackets didn’t become fashionable for casual wear until the 1850s. The jacket was derived from the short jacket worn by boys and working men, and in the age of mass-production and ready-made suits, its simple style was easier to produce than the tailored coat.
C It was George “Beau” Brunimell, the champion of simple English style, who started a trend for wearing tight black trousers in the early 1800s.
D The favorite patterns for trousers were strong plaids, stripes and checks. The loose straight cut came in about the 1860s, and front creases in the 1880s. By the turn of the century, they had become the common way to dress.


Answer

Answer: 1-c, 2-a, 3-d, 4-b



B The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.

Jumbled paragraphs Correct paragraph order (1-4)
A Between May and. August 1783, two volcanic eruptions had occurred, one in Iceland and one in Japan. The northern hemisphere had been covered in a “great fog”.
B A year earlier, a volcano had erupted in Indonesia, sending up vast quantities of fine volcanic dust into the atmosphere. Circling the Earth, the dust reflected sunlight back into space.
C This, of course, was an extraordinary event. In fact, it is considered one of the most catastrophic global events in recorded history. But something like it had happened before, and within living memory.
D The Earth literally darkened, temperatures dropped. Throughout western Europe and North America crops failed, and cattle died. A large portion of the world lay under a huge volcanic cloud.
E In the spring of 1816, the weather suddenly changed. The unseasonably warm spring turned cold and people were forced indoors by continual rain. The skies darkened and there was no summer.


Answer

Answer: 1-e, 2-b, 3-d, 4-c, 5-a



Fill In The Blanks

A In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

You may think that the World Cup, like the Olympic Games™, only occurs once every four years. It is the (1) rounds, that take
(2) every four years, but the competition as a whole is an ongoing (3) since the qualifying rounds take place over the preceding three years. The final phase of the tournament now involves thirty-two teams competing over a four-week (4) in a previously nominated (5) nation. It has become the most widely viewed sporting event in the world.

Event     |   Final     |   Home     |   Host     |   Last     |   Period     |   place     |   Time


Answer

Answer: 1-final, 2-place, 3-event, 4-period, 5-host



B In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

Ideas as well as people can take (1) stage at the right time and the right place. If new ideas are to have a wide-ranging
(2) They had better occur at the right time – usually when old theories are worn out or have reached a dead (3) Then they make people thinkalong new lines and in ways that may (4) in unexpected directions. These ideas needn’t be new in themselves. They can be older, half-forgotten ideas brought back to life, or new combinations of (5) ones presented in a new light.

Center     |   Effect     |   End     |   Familiar     |   Front     |   Known     |   Lead     |   Stop


Answer

Answer: 1-center, 2-effect, 3-end, 4-lead, 5-familiar



C In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

Most of us believe that when we are making decisions about money we are being clear-headed and sensible, and assume that any rational person would
(1) in the same way and make the same decisions. But our (2) . Are always based on the private logic of our own
(3) mind-set, our deep beliefs about money and what it's for, and no two people are the same. Even when two people come to the same
(4) , they have probably used quite different logical paths.

Answer     |   Behave     |   Choices     |   Conclusion     |   Economical     |   Financial     |   ideas


Answer

Answer: 1-behave, 2-choices, 3-financial, 4-conclusion



A Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.

The human body is designed to (1) physically rather than mentally to stressful situations. This instinctive reaction to a situation is
(2) as the “fight or flight" response. The body is prepared to either stand and deal with the problem by fighting it, or to escape to safety. Even if the problem or threat is emotional and not physical, the body behaves in the same way: the heart beats faster, the muscles tense, and the skin sweats more. If someone finds themselves in a situation where there is no (3) to escape or overcome the (4) of the threat, then stress and anxiety will occur.
Some of the first signs that the pressure is getting to you are loss of concentration, inability to sleep, loss of temper for minor reasons, headaches, aching limbs and a general feeling of uneasiness. These (5) Choose an item. can lead on to more serious problems, such as high blood pressure which increases the risk of a heart attack. Stress weakens the body’s defence system, so you are more likely to get minor ailments like colds. It can also lead to baldness. Mentally, it becomes harder and harder to perform your normal day-to-day activities, and can lead to a nervous breakdown. Recognizing all this is the first step (6) getting back to health and being able to cope with the causes of stress.



Answer

Answer: 1-respond, 2-known, 3-chance, 4-cause, 5-symptoms, 6-towards



B Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.

Most of the rubbish we produce - about two-thirds of it - goes into landfills. Now, it is (1) that the average UK household produces about one and a half tons of rubbish a year. These figures may not sound alarming, but the UK is geographically small and it all adds up, and there aren't many places
(2) where we can dig huge holes and fill them with our rubbish, which is why ever-increasing amounts of waste from western countries are being exported to the developing world. Furthermore, (3) European recycling laws and higher landfill taxes mean that the days of dumping waste into landfill sites are almost at an end.
Landfill is cheap but wasteful and, as we have seen, unsustainable in the long run. Whereas burning of incineration is expensive and wasteful. Besides, local communities don’t want huge incineration plants in their back yards. Recycling is considered by many to be the best solution, but it isn’t nearly as good as most people think. The recycling process degrades most materials, so that they can only be used in limited ways. Also, many of the products we buy that are (4) as recyclable can only be recycled with great difficulty and at great (5) Perhaps the best idea is to have reusable packaging, such as returnable bottles and refillable packets.



Answer

Answer: 1-estimated, 2-left, 3-stricter, 4-labelled, 5-cost



C Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.

We all have our own ideas about what constitutes anti-social behavior, some of us being more tolerant than others, but the (1) definition allows for a fairly broad interpretation. To quote the Crime and Disorder Act of 1998, it is behavior which “causes or is likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to one or more people who are not in the same household as the perpetrator”. Such behavior (2) writing graffiti, which can make even the cleanest urban space look squalid, making excessive noise, especially at night, and throwing litter onto the streets. Such behavior, however, affects everyone in the community, and requires the community to work together to find ways of dealing with it.
Just as the problems are many and varied, the solution too must work effectively on many levels. Anti-social behavior is not confined to any particular
(3) group, and it affects the quality of life of young and old (4) . This in turn means that it needs an active partnership between all of the various social groups that make up society. More than an efficient police force is required. Schools, for example, need to have effective rules to deal with truancy and bullying. Landlords should take (5) for anti-social behavior by or against their tenants. The same also goes for local authorities and social services when taking decisions that affect the community. Furthermore, they need to share information as openly as possible.



Answer

Answer: 1-legal, 2-includes, 3-age, 4-alike, 5-responsibility



D Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.

Is altruism, the state of acting unselfishly on behalf of others, a particularly human trait, or is it a behavior other species practice too? What’s more to the point, is it in fact a trait we have at all, or can all our actions be finally attributed to self-interest, however selfless they might at first (1) ? For example, if you rush into your neighbour’s burning house and save him and his family, this is naturally seen as a good and noble deed, but some would argue that it wasn’t a natural human instinct that
(2) you to put your life at (3) , but that your true motive was that you would expect your neighbour to do the same for you under (4) circumstances.
Other species do co-operate and work together for the mutual benefit of the group, mainly in terms of hunting for food and defence and is for the collective good. But altruism proper suggests that little or no advantage attaches to the altruistic act - you might even lose your life in the process. Cynics will say that at bottom alll our actions are
(5) in some way or another, while those who take a rosier view believe that altruism, and goodness, are a part of human nature. Aristotle himself was a bit of an optimist in this matter, believing that all people were basically good, but that this quality could only be brought out within society and that, therefore, we are, in the original sense of the word, political animals.



Answer

Answer: 1-appear, 2-caused, 3-risk, 4-similar, 5-selfish



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