A Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.
On meeting a person for the first time, our first question is often "What do you do?” That is, we ask what they do for a living, what their job is, because we feel this will help us place them. It helps us to define their status. We can judge where they stand socially, we can make a guess at how much they earn, and through that what kind of a standard of living they can afford. In addition, it can give us a fairly good idea of their educational background.
The problem is that people often choose a career for the wrong reasons. For instance, some people follow in the footsteps of a parent, either entering the same trade or profession, or inheriting the family business. Others make exactly the opposite decision, either out of a fierce desire for independence, or to spite a parent, or simply to get away from family. They decide that whatever else they might do, they will certainly not do what their mother or father did.
People may also persuade themselves to pursue a career for which they are unsuited out of hero-worship, or as a result of meeting people they admire. It is a pity that we have to make such an important decision about our future career at a stage in our lives when we are so easily influenced by factors which have little or nothing to do with the central issue, namely, that we should do those things for which we have a natural talent.
B Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.
Politically, the Roman Empire laid the foundations on which modem Europe was built. Culturally, partly through native genius and partly through absorbing the achievements of the older and richer culture of Greece, its literature became the basis of European values, in particular those values that arise out of the individual’s relationship to their society. Rome began to produce literature between 300 and 100 BC at about the same time as it was conquering the rich Greek colonies in the south of Italy.
Roman writers and orators began to expand their imaginative and intellectual horizons and refine the Latin language through the study of Greek literature. Early Roman literature had been basically of two kinds: the recording and examination of public life and behavior through life stories of famous men, and the particularly Roman art of satirical comedy and drama.
There were those, however, who objected to the Greek influence, most notably Cato the Censor, who did his best to uphold the virtues of no-nonsense Latin prose against Greek luxury. More typical, and in the end more successful, was the poet Ennius, who managed to keep a balance between Greek and Latin values by writing a Homeric epic poem in Latin idiom, but using Greek poetic metre.
A Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.
Before Luke Howard invented his system for classifying clouds, they had simply been described by their shape and color as each person saw them: they were too changeable and moved too quickly for anyone to think they could be classified in any useful way. Howard had been interested in clouds - and meteorology in general - ever since he was a small boy, and for thirty years kept a record of his meteorological observations. In 1802-1803, he produced a paper in which he named the clouds, or, to be more precise, classified them, claiming that it was possible to identify several simple categories within the various and complex cloud forms. As was standard practice for the classification of plant and animal species, they were given Latin names, which meant that the system could be understood throughout Europe.
Howard believed that all clouds belonged to three distinct groups; cumulus, stratus and cirrus. He added a fourth category, nimbus, to describe a cloud "in the act of condensation into rain, hail or snow”, it is by observing how clouds change color and shape that weather can be predicted, and as long as the first three types of cloud keep their normal shape there won't be any rain.
This system came to be used across the European continent, and in the 20th century his cloud classification system was adopted, with some additions, as the international standard, but that was not his only contribution to meteorology. He wrote papers on barometers and theories of rain, and what is probably the first textbook on weather. He can also be considered to be the father of what is now called "urban climatology”. Howard had realized that cities could significantly alter meteorological elements. One of these he called “city fog". Nowadays we call it "smog”, a combination of smoke and fog.
B Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.
When does a hobby or pastime, or whatever you want to call what you do in your leisure time for rest and relaxation, cease to be a hobby or a pastime and become something a bit more serious, such as something you realize can be turned into financial gain, or an obsession that can mess up your life as much as any other addiction? The whole point of them, of course, is that they are done out of personal interest and for pleasure and enjoyment, not for financial gain.
Most people’s hobbies turn out to be easy and stress-free pastimes such as collecting things, making things, sports, playing a musical instrument, reading, and so on. And - so it is claimed - they are good for you, too. Pursuing a hobby can have calming and helpful beneficial effects. For a start, it can take your mind off your problems, and the more interests you have, the more you enjoy life.
One way in which the subject becomes a little bit serious is when you are applying for a job and writing out your curriculum vitae, or resume. There’s invariably a section which asks what your outside interests are, and because getting a job is a serious business, and you want to impress your prospective employers, you might find yourself claiming that you like nothing better at weekends than being flown by helicopter to the top of the Alps and then making your way home by snowboard and hang-glider. Perhaps people find themselves doing this because they feel that applying for a job and coming across well at interview is a test of character and being an aficionado of extreme sports is a lot cooler than stamp collecting. But why turn what is supposed to be calming and relaxing into a cause for anxiety?
A The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.
|Jumbled paragraphs||Correct paragraph order (1-4)|
|A By 1817, trousers were shoe-length. Popular with the king, they became accepted as standard daywear by 1825 and were worn with a waistcoat and, by day, a frock coat, but with a tailcoat in the evening.|
|B Jackets didn’t become fashionable for casual wear until the 1850s. The jacket was derived from the short jacket worn by boys and working men, and in the age of mass-production and ready-made suits, its simple style was easier to produce than the tailored coat.|
|C It was George “Beau” Brunimell, the champion of simple English style, who started a trend for wearing tight black trousers in the early 1800s.|
|D The favorite patterns for trousers were strong plaids, stripes and checks. The loose straight cut came in about the 1860s, and front creases in the 1880s. By the turn of the century, they had become the common way to dress.|
B The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.
|Jumbled paragraphs||Correct paragraph order (1-4)|
|A Between May and. August 1783, two volcanic eruptions had occurred, one in Iceland and one in Japan. The northern hemisphere had been covered in a “great fog”.|
|B A year earlier, a volcano had erupted in Indonesia, sending up vast quantities of fine volcanic dust into the atmosphere. Circling the Earth, the dust reflected sunlight back into space.|
|C This, of course, was an extraordinary event. In fact, it is considered one of the most catastrophic global events in recorded history. But something like it had happened before, and within living memory.|
|D The Earth literally darkened, temperatures dropped. Throughout western Europe and North America crops failed, and cattle died. A large portion of the world lay under a huge volcanic cloud.|
|E In the spring of 1816, the weather suddenly changed. The unseasonably warm spring turned cold and people were forced indoors by continual rain. The skies darkened and there was no summer.|
A In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.
|Event | Final | Home | Host | Last | Period | place | Time|
B In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.
|Center | Effect | End | Familiar | Front | Known | Lead | Stop|
C In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.
|Answer | Behave | Choices | Conclusion | Economical | Financial | ideas|
A Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.
B Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.
C Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.
D Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.