IELTS MASTER | PTE Test 3 Reading

Reading

Multiple choice, choose single Answer

A Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

By the 15th century, the various Zulu chiefdoms had reached the south-eastern part of Southern Africa. They were largely cattle farmers and cultivators who lived in scattered villages across the land. Like other African peoples at this time, they lived within a system of clans and tribes under independent chiefs until, in the latter part of the 18th century, the system changed, possibly due to land shortage, and a number of larger political groupings were formed. The most powerful among these were the Mthethwa under the leadership of Dingiswayo, who radically changed some aspects of traditional life during his reign.
Formerly, military activity was based on local recruitment; men from a district would fight together under their chief. So, in order to create a large unified fighting force and control the fierce rivalry between supporters of different groups, Dingiswayo reorganized his army along the lines of age rather than old local allegiances. Thus, men of a particular age group, regardless of clan or residence, formed a regiment whose loyalty was to the king alone. Fathers and sons fought in different regiments and men from the same district found themselves in completely different groups, and as a result local rivalry was prevented. This was the basic military system that Shaka, the most famous Zulu chief, inherited and built on.

Which of the following is mentioned as one of the changes made to the Zulus’ traditional life?


Answer

Answer: 3



B Read the text and Answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

The Second World War brought a period of austerity and tough rationing in Britain, especially for food: before the war Britain had imported about 55 million tons of food, but, only a month after the war began, this had dropped to 12 million. Strangely enough, this period also saw a general improvement in health standards across the country. Rationing began at the beginning of 1940 and lasted until July 1954 when the last restrictions on meat were lifted.
Everyone was issued with an identity card and each household had a ration book. Then they had to register with a local supplier of food whose name was stamped in the ration book so that you could only buy your ration from that supplier, and only the amount you were allowed. The books contained coupons which the shopkeepers cut out every time you made a purchase, and the amount you were allowed depended, to a certain extent, on the color of your ration book. The majority of adults had a buff or brownish book. Then there was the green book for pregnant women, nursing mothers and children under five, and this allowed them first choice of fruit, a daily pint of milk and a double supply of eggs. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 had a blue book, which allowed them fruit, a full meat ration and half a pint of milk a day.
The idea was to make as sure as possible that everybody got a fair share of the food available, the worry being that as food and other consumer goods became scarcer, prices would rise and the less well-off might not be able to pay. However, some thought it unfair, as people living in rural areas could get hold of eggs, butter and milk fairly easily without coupons.

According to the text, which of the following statements is true?


Answer

Answer: 4



Multiple choice, choose multiple Answer

A Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

Why do some countries drive on the left, while others - the majority - drive on the right? In fact, those that drive on the left make up about twenty-five per cent of the world's countries and are, apart from the UK itself, mostly countries drat were British colonies: India, South Africa, Singapore, Jamaica, and so on. Japan does too, although it wasn’t a colony, and as late as 2009, Samoa switched from driving on the right largely because they wanted to buy right-hand drive cars made in Japan and New Zealand.
The Romans introduced the custom of keeping to the left, a habit that was reinforced in medieval times when riders throughout Europe passed oncoming strangers sword arm to sword arm - this idea is based on the tact that the majority of people are right-handed. An increase in horse traffic towards the end of the 18'” century meant that the convention gained strength, but it was not put into law until 1835. Legend lias it that Napoleon is responsible for making the European countries which he conquered keep to the light, for the simple reason either that he was left-handed himself, or that he wanted to be different from his enemy, England. This is most probably nonsense, but an Emperor’s whims can go a long way. So France, obviously, and Spain, the Netherlands and other countries Napoleon overran used this system, and over the years other countries adopted the practice to make crossing borders easier and safer. The latest European country to convert was Sweden, in 1967.

According to the text, which of the countries listed below drive on the left?


Answer

Answer: 1, 2, 4, 5



B Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

In 1861, Matthew Brady, a well-known portrait photographer, approached President Lincoln requesting permission to move freely about the country photographing the Civil War. Lincoln granted him permission to travel anywhere with the Union armies, and his record of this conflict brought home to millions the horrors of war.
Brady wasn’t the first official war photographer. Six years earlier, Roger Fenton, a lawyer and amateur photographer, had returned from the Crimea, having been personally chosen by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. However, his instructions were more likely to have been to send back work that boosted morale back home rather than the terrible realities of war.
Brady’s coverage of the war made him a household name, hut he had hundreds of assistants, and it’s even possible that he didn’t take any of the 7,000 pictures that were marketed under his name. But no one else could have organized the large army of photographers needed to cover the broad sweep of the war and provided access to many leading generals and politicians.

Which of the following statements are true of Matthew Brady?


Answer

Answer: 1, 2, 4



Re-order Paragraphs

A The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.

Jumbled paragraphs Correct paragraph order (1-4)
A Now, Polybius, if we forget Aristotle for the moment, was to become the main authority on the three types of constitution and the cycles through which they pass, becoming more corrupt as they do so: kingship turns into tyranny, aristocracy to oligarchy, and democracy into mob rule.
B The constitution was then at its healthiest, while that of the Carthaginians was already in decline because, in Polybius’ opinion it was becoming more democratic.
C Polybius believed that this progression could be halted at least temporarily by keeping the three elements held in some kind of balance, and the Romans achieved this not by abstract reasoning but by trial and error.
D The Roman state was tested almost to destruction by the defeat at Cannae by the Carthaginians led by Hannibal - and according to the historian Polybius it was only what he called the "peculiar virtues” of the Roman constitution that allowed it to survive this crisis.


Answer

Answer: 1-d, 2-b, 3-a, 4-c



B The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.

Jumbled paragraphs Correct paragraph order (1-4)
A In the late 18lh century, groups of skilled workers began to control the hiring of apprentices, and bargained with employers for better working conditions, but, as the movement grew, these trade unions tried to find ways of creating an alliance among themselves.
B The first meeting of the Trades Union Congress took place in Manchester, at which thirty-four delegates represented well over a hundred thousand trade union members.
C Trade unions were legalized in an Act of 1871, and by the end of the century more than one and a half million workers were members. Conditions for workers slowly improved over the years, but it wasn’t until 1974 that legislation covering the health and safety of all employees was introduced.
D Until the 19th century, workers were given little or no protection. Child labor was common, as were long hours worked in unsafe conditions for minimal pay.


Answer

Answer: 1-d, 2-a, 3-b, 4-c



Fill In The Blanks

A In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

Today we (1) Aesop’s fables with childhood, and the Victorians are largely (2) . for that. There were at least seven separate (3) . or retellings in the 19th century, all targeted at children. Rewritten as parables, they were seen as an effective way of communicating Victorian morality. Yet, in antiquity, Aesop wasn't read by children: (4) the talking animals and the sometimes childlike atmosphere of the tales, the setting was perceived at the time as being political.

Relate     |   Translations     |   Stories     |   Blamed     |   Responsible     |   Associate     |   despite     |   Though


Answer

Answer: 1-associate, 2-responsible, 3-translations, 4-despite



B In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

Very intelligent people often make the (1) of assuming that other people’s minds work in the same way as theirs do. Economists, for example, create mathematically-based models on the (2) that people act rationally as far as their own economic (3) are concerned. You don’t have to look much further than family and friends to see how off the (4) this idea is. The problem with a lot of such scientifically-based theories is that they are not friendly to facts that don’t (5) the case.

Make     |   Fit     |   Mistake     |   Fact     |   Interests     |   Business     |   Mark     |   Notion


Answer

Answer: 1-mistake, 2-notion, 3-interests, 4-mark, 5-fit



C In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

With today’s incredible (1) of technological change a lot of age-old human skills may be getting left behind or (2) out. It’s not just that if you buy a laptop today it’s obsolete within (3) than a year and the rest of the world has moved on; it’s more that, as workers get more expensive and equipment gets cheaper, companies are spending more on machines rather than people. Fewer people, therefore, are being
(4) in necessary skills.

Losing     |   Trained     |   Under     |   Less     |   Rate     |   Taught     |   Dying     |   Speed


Answer

Answer: 1-rate, 2-dying, 3-less, 4-trained



A Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.

Of all those whose names are associated with the (1) of photography, Louis Daguerre is perhaps the most famous. He started out as a student of architecture, but by the age of sixteen was working as a stage designer and his work in this field, especially his handling of lighting effects, (2) him to fame. His (3) in photography grew out of his use of the camera obscura to help with perspective in painting and his desire to freeze the image. To this end, he formed a partnership with the photographer Nicephore Niepce - but this was short-lived as Niepce died not long after.
Daguerre continued to experiment and made, it seems by (4) an important discovery: he had put an exposed photographic plate - this was, of course, before the age of film - in his chemical cupboard and some days later found that the latent image had developed. There was also a broken thermometer in the cupboard, and he assumed that the vapour from the mercury had caused it. This meant it was now possible to reduce the time the plate was exposed from eight hours to thirty minutes.
This produced an image. The next step was to fix it, which he managed to do in 1837. He called this new process the Daguerreotype, then advertised and looked for sponsors, but initially very few people were interested. The discovery was made (5) in January 1839, but details of the process were not given until August the same year, the French government in the meantime having bought the rights to the process.



Answer

Answer: 1-invention, 2-brought, 3-interest, 4-accident, 5-public



B Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

The term “trencherman” means a good hearty eater. It could be assumed, therefore, that a “trencher” was something people used to eat off, such as a wooden
(1) or the like, which (2) as a plate - as the dictionary confirms. In fact, it was originally a large chunk or slice of stale bread used to soak up the juices, which would later be fed to the domestic animals or the poor. (3) , those who had a very strong stomach or large appetite could eat it themselves. Before the invention of cutlery, our ancestors usually ate with their hands, it is quite surprising to realize how
(4) in the day it was before cutlery - knives, forks and spoons, even drinking cups - became commonly used for eating. It is not a question of being slow to (5) the concept of such tools and their possible uses - they had been around for ages, though it was usually only the wealthier people who had them at the dinner table. So the reason for this late development or fashion must be looked for elsewhere.



Answer

Answer: 1-board, 2-served, 3-alternatively, 4-late, 5-grasp



C Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.

Woodcuts, as printed illustrations, went well with type, which is why this form of printing was the only (1) used to print pictures together with moveable type until late in the 16th century. Woodblocks and type are both relief surfaces - that is, raised from the flat surface of the block - and are
(2) the same height on the bed of the printing press; furthermore, the same oil-based ink can be used on both surfaces so that they can be printed simultaneously. As with cutting the woodblocks and setting the type, the ink was applied by hand, using what was (3) an ink ball – a pad made of leather stuffed with wool or hair and tied around a wooden handle. The ink was like a thick black oil paint and it usually (4) of a mixture of linseed oil that had been boiled until it was free of fats, and various pigments. Varnishes were then added to get the ink to the right consistency or thickness, and also as an aid to drying.
Book illustration, then, was to be one of the major factors in the development of the woodcut, and its influence lasted until the 19th century. The aesthetic side of book making - the arrangement of the text, ornamentation and pictures together on the page - required an inventive and subtle (5) . to the problems of pictorial composition.



Answer

Answer: 1-method, 2-roughly, 3-called, 4-consisted, 5-approach



D Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.

Whenever you see a film set in ancient Greece or Rome - or anywhere for that matter - the men are all wearing togas or kilts or are (1) in a cloak. How much closer to our own age do we have to come to see men wearing trousers? In fact they, or something very much like them, were worn in ancient times; the Chinese dressed in trousers tied at the waist and often at the ankles to protect them against the cold, while Asian nomads wore something similar for riding. In Persia too, they were
(2) for both men and women. This was a form of dress that found its (3) to central Europe by 400 BC. In the following century, Celtic people began wearing similar garments, while the English wore ankle-length britches until about the 1100s, when they (4) knee-length britches – whether as a matter of fashion or practicality it’s difficult to say.
What became known as bell-bottoms, which were fashionable in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and (5) a comeback in the 21st century, were worn by English sailors from about the 1730s, but trousers only really became fashionable in the first quarter of the 19th century, and usually only for informal day wear.



Answer

Answer: 1-wrapped, 2-traditional, 3-way, 4-adopted, 5-made



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