A Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.
By the 15th century, the various Zulu chiefdoms had reached the south-eastern part of Southern Africa. They were largely cattle farmers and cultivators who lived in scattered villages across the land. Like other African peoples at this time, they lived within a system of clans and tribes under independent chiefs until, in the latter part of the 18th century, the system changed, possibly due to land shortage, and a number of larger political groupings were formed. The most powerful among these were the Mthethwa under the leadership of Dingiswayo, who radically changed some aspects of traditional life during his reign.
Formerly, military activity was based on local recruitment; men from a district would fight together under their chief. So, in order to create a large unified fighting force and control the fierce rivalry between supporters of different groups, Dingiswayo reorganized his army along the lines of age rather than old local allegiances. Thus, men of a particular age group, regardless of clan or residence, formed a regiment whose loyalty was to the king alone. Fathers and sons fought in different regiments and men from the same district found themselves in completely different groups, and as a result local rivalry was prevented. This was the basic military system that Shaka, the most famous Zulu chief, inherited and built on.
B Read the text and Answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.
The Second World War brought a period of austerity and tough rationing in Britain, especially for food: before the war Britain had imported about 55 million tons of food, but, only a month after the war began, this had dropped to 12 million. Strangely enough, this period also saw a general improvement in health standards across the country. Rationing began at the beginning of 1940 and lasted until July 1954 when the last restrictions on meat were lifted.
Everyone was issued with an identity card and each household had a ration book. Then they had to register with a local supplier of food whose name was stamped in the ration book so that you could only buy your ration from that supplier, and only the amount you were allowed. The books contained coupons which the shopkeepers cut out every time you made a purchase, and the amount you were allowed depended, to a certain extent, on the color of your ration book. The majority of adults had a buff or brownish book. Then there was the green book for pregnant women, nursing mothers and children under five, and this allowed them first choice of fruit, a daily pint of milk and a double supply of eggs. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 had a blue book, which allowed them fruit, a full meat ration and half a pint of milk a day.
The idea was to make as sure as possible that everybody got a fair share of the food available, the worry being that as food and other consumer goods became scarcer, prices would rise and the less well-off might not be able to pay. However, some thought it unfair, as people living in rural areas could get hold of eggs, butter and milk fairly easily without coupons.
A Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.
Why do some countries drive on the left, while others - the majority - drive on the right? In fact, those that drive on the left make up about twenty-five per cent of the world's countries and are, apart from the UK itself, mostly countries drat were British colonies: India, South Africa, Singapore, Jamaica, and so on. Japan does too, although it wasn’t a colony, and as late as 2009, Samoa switched from driving on the right largely because they wanted to buy right-hand drive cars made in Japan and New Zealand.
The Romans introduced the custom of keeping to the left, a habit that was reinforced in medieval times when riders throughout Europe passed oncoming strangers sword arm to sword arm - this idea is based on the tact that the majority of people are right-handed. An increase in horse traffic towards the end of the 18'” century meant that the convention gained strength, but it was not put into law until 1835. Legend lias it that Napoleon is responsible for making the European countries which he conquered keep to the light, for the simple reason either that he was left-handed himself, or that he wanted to be different from his enemy, England. This is most probably nonsense, but an Emperor’s whims can go a long way. So France, obviously, and Spain, the Netherlands and other countries Napoleon overran used this system, and over the years other countries adopted the practice to make crossing borders easier and safer. The latest European country to convert was Sweden, in 1967.
B Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.
In 1861, Matthew Brady, a well-known portrait photographer, approached President Lincoln requesting permission to move freely about the country photographing the Civil War. Lincoln granted him permission to travel anywhere with the Union armies, and his record of this conflict brought home to millions the horrors of war.
Brady wasn’t the first official war photographer. Six years earlier, Roger Fenton, a lawyer and amateur photographer, had returned from the Crimea, having been personally chosen by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. However, his instructions were more likely to have been to send back work that boosted morale back home rather than the terrible realities of war.
Brady’s coverage of the war made him a household name, hut he had hundreds of assistants, and it’s even possible that he didn’t take any of the 7,000 pictures that were marketed under his name. But no one else could have organized the large army of photographers needed to cover the broad sweep of the war and provided access to many leading generals and politicians.
A The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.
|Jumbled paragraphs||Correct paragraph order (1-4)|
|A Now, Polybius, if we forget Aristotle for the moment, was to become the main authority on the three types of constitution and the cycles through which they pass, becoming more corrupt as they do so: kingship turns into tyranny, aristocracy to oligarchy, and democracy into mob rule.|
|B The constitution was then at its healthiest, while that of the Carthaginians was already in decline because, in Polybius’ opinion it was becoming more democratic.|
|C Polybius believed that this progression could be halted at least temporarily by keeping the three elements held in some kind of balance, and the Romans achieved this not by abstract reasoning but by trial and error.|
|D The Roman state was tested almost to destruction by the defeat at Cannae by the Carthaginians led by Hannibal - and according to the historian Polybius it was only what he called the "peculiar virtues” of the Roman constitution that allowed it to survive this crisis.|
B The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.
|Jumbled paragraphs||Correct paragraph order (1-4)|
|A In the late 18lh century, groups of skilled workers began to control the hiring of apprentices, and bargained with employers for better working conditions, but, as the movement grew, these trade unions tried to find ways of creating an alliance among themselves.|
|B The first meeting of the Trades Union Congress took place in Manchester, at which thirty-four delegates represented well over a hundred thousand trade union members.|
|C Trade unions were legalized in an Act of 1871, and by the end of the century more than one and a half million workers were members. Conditions for workers slowly improved over the years, but it wasn’t until 1974 that legislation covering the health and safety of all employees was introduced.|
|D Until the 19th century, workers were given little or no protection. Child labor was common, as were long hours worked in unsafe conditions for minimal pay.|
A In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.
|Relate | Translations | Stories | Blamed | Responsible | Associate | despite | Though|
B In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.
|Make | Fit | Mistake | Fact | Interests | Business | Mark | Notion|
C In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.
|Losing | Trained | Under | Less | Rate | Taught | Dying | Speed|
A Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.
B Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.
C Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.
D Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.