IELTS MASTER | Test2 Reading

Reading

Multiple choice, choose single Answer

A Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

So far, we have been looking at the work of humanist historians in the Renaissance and the new way in which they approached their subject. Not only did they use close reading of ancient texts, as you would expect, but they also did a lot of research in the archives. That is, they didn’t just read the historians that came before them, they looked for real documents. For example, they studied the records of cases that went to court, official letters that had survived, and so on to get a fuller picture of how people really lived and went ahout their business.
These same techniques of historical research were used in what we can call “legal humanism”. The idea here was to get as accurate a picture as possible of the law and its practice in ancient, especially Roman, times. Legal historians did this with a view to refining the laws and applying them to the present historical situation. Legal scholarship’s original desire to recover and purify the heritage of the ancient world later came to be distorted by political views, but even here, in the 16th century, such intense study could lead to unexpected conclusions. For example, in France, inquiries meant to uncover and apply the legal wisdom of the Romans ended by uncovering a Roman law so pure that it was totally alien. This law, in fact, belonged to the past and to a different society, and was therefore unusable.

What was the ultimate aim of legal scholarship?


Answer

Answer: 3

Multiple choice, choose single Answer

B Read the text and Answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response.Only one response is correct.

When it comes to an organ of such complexity as the eye, it is not difficult to understand why some people cannot accept that such perfection was arrived at by the trial and error, or gradual development, of natural selection. Yet people thought the Earth stood still until Copernicus told them otherwise. In the same way, it shouldn’t be hard to believe that a complex eye could be formed by natural selection if it can be shown that there were numerous stages from a simple and imperfect eye to a complex and perfect one, with each development being useful to its possessor and the variations being inherited.
However, the search for the stages through which an organ in any one species has come to perfection, which ideally would mean looking exclusively at its past generations, is rarely possible. Therefore, researchers are forced to examine species and genera of the same group to discover what stages or gradual developments are possible. Even the state of development of the same organ in a different class of creature may throw light on the steps taken towards perfection.
Some people object that in order for the eye to modify and still remain a useful instrument to its owner, many changes would have had to take place simultaneously. However, it is not necessary to suppose this if the modifications were extremely slight and gradual.

Why are researchers forced to look outside a specific species for clues to gradual development?


Answer

Answer: 2



Multiple choice, choose multiple Answer

A Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

A Xhosa bride in southern Africa, in contrast to her western counterpart, is expected to show both reluctance and sadness during her wedding - any signs of joy are considered inappropriate. She may even cry, and not without reason, because she is leaving her own family and relatives to live among a group of strangers where she will have to be careful of what she says and does.
For example, a new bride is not allowed to walk across the central meeting place in the middle of the kraal, or village, nor the cattle pen. And when she wishes to go from house to house, she must take the back way. To show respect for her husband’s senior relatives, she has to avoid using the names of senior male relatives or even words similar to them, which can lead to some complex paraphrases. Furthermore, she is not allowed to use the personal names of her mother-in-law, nor those of her husband’s aunts and elder sisters. Her first priority is the care of her husband, which means doing most of the heavy domestic work. Further constraints are having to wear a handkerchief low over her forehead, never showing her bare head to her husband’s relatives, not being allowed to drink milk from the homestead herd, and not touching the drinking utensils.
However, these rules become less strict as time passes. The handkerchief is eventually removed, gifts are exchanged, and family relationships become a bit more relaxed. Finally, there is a ritual killing of a cow and the bride is allowed to drink the milk of the homestead. However, once she has done this, she can no longer drink the milk of her father’s house, symbolizing her final separation from her family.

According to the text, which of the following behaviors are expected of a new Xhosa bride?


Answer

Answer: 3, 5, 7



Multiple choice, choose multiple Answer

A Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

There are perhaps three ways of looking at furniture: some people see it as purely functional and useful, and don’t bother themselves with aesthetics; others see it as essential to civilized living and concern themselves with design and how the furniture will look in a room - in other words, function combined with aesthetics; and yet others see furniture as a form of art.
In the past, designers of furniture usually worked for royalty, the nobility, landowners and rich merchants and SO were not constrained by the limits of space, economy, or even practicality that inhibit the contemporary designer. Indeed, function was not the first consideration and interiors did not always have to be practical. In the Renaissance, for example, fine furniture and interiors were designed to show off not only the riches of the owners, but their learning, wisdom and good taste as well. No doubt, this attitude still exists among a number of the wealthy.
Apart from a brief period in the 20,h century when furniture designers mistook themselves for artists and sculptors, producing, say, chairs that were nice to look at, but impossible to sit on comfortably, modern designers have, for the most part, come to terms with the functional aspect of furniture. These days, a well-designed interior must be practical and exclude what is unnecessary. Limited space must be used imaginatively, and a sense of space and clarity is needed as a setting for efficient living. Therefore, in the modern home, furniture should fulfil a specific purpose, and need as little care and attention as possible.
In addition to this, costs must be kept to a minimum because, these days, there are many luxuries competing for our attention. Function and economy, therefore, are of the utmost importance.

According to the text, how does modern furniture design differ from that of the past?


Answer

Answer: 1, 4, 5



Re-order Paragraphs

A The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.

Jumbled paragraphs Correct paragraph order (1-4)
A Habeas corpus, a law by which a prisoner could demand to be brought before the courts and have his case heard, was a well-established right in England, but the authorities had found a number of ways of getting round its use where political prisoners were concerned.
B The new act put a stop to such abuses and deprived the executive of powers it might have used to support oppressive and arbitrary government.
C In 1679, what became known as the first Exclusionist Parliament passed at least one useful piece of legislation: on the day parliament was suspended, the King gave his assent to a Habeas Corpus Act.
D James Harrington, the philosopher, is a good example. When his sisters applied for habeas corpus, he was taken from the Tower of London to a barren island where habeas corpus could not be imposed.


Answer

Answer: 1-c, 2-a, 3-d, 4-b



B The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.

Jumbled paragraphs Correct paragraph order (1-4)
A However, the potential for crime is enormous. Some experts believe that American financial systems are losing up to $5 billion a year to computer fraud. Once a hacker has got into the bank’s system, he or she can order it to transfer large sums of money to a foreign account.
B Any computer network connected to the telephone system is vulnerable because the hacker needs only to discover the coded password in order to gain entry to the network. All it takes is intelligent guesswork, trial and error, and perseverance.
C At first, this appeared to be a perfect example of electronic spying, but it turned out to be a bunch of talented computer buffs doing it for fun. If they bad wanted to create real problems, they could have altered files or deleted them altogether.
D A German student sitting at home at a computer terminal connected to the telephone system managed to hack into NASA’s computers and read top secret files. He and a group of other students in Hamburg had also got into about thirty other restricted computer networks.


Answer

Answer: 1-d, 2-c, 3-b, 4-a



Fill In The Blanks

A In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

This MPhil (1) students from a wide variety of academic, business and political (2) to the traditions, methods, and state-of-the-art research that shape an advanced analysis of human society. The MPhil is an eleven-month course designed for those who wish to go on to do doctoral research or (3) . For those who (4) want to improve their understanding of methodology and analysis, and attain an independent postgraduate degree in its own right.

Backgrounds     |   Plainly     |   Equally     |   Professions     |   Introduces     |   Presents     |   simply


Answer

Answer: 1-introduces, 2-backgrounds, 3-equally, 4-simply



B In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

The main (1) of advertising is to sell (2) by getting them known and, here, brash, sensational ideas may often serve the (3) . But by no means is all advertising aimed at promoting a new product or even a product at all. One of the most famous posters of the 20th century (4) Lord Kitchener early in the 1914-18 war pointing a finger, perhaps accusingly at the entire male military age population of Britain.

Aim     |   Illustrates     |   Products     |   Purpose     |   Point     |   Shows     |   Produces


Answer

Answer: 1-aim, 2-products, 3-purpose, 4-shows



C In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

Universities are, of course, the primary centers of intellectual life in modern society. Therefore, they are a (1) center of criticism: criticism of society and of the dominant (2) in it, especially its politics, by sections of both the (3) and the student bodies. This critical (4) of the university, as the place where ideas are born and where support for criticism is (5) among students, who form the mass base for many protest movements, has been true for a long time and in many countries.

Semester     |   Revealed     |   Key     |   Found     |   Staff     |   Trends     |   Participation     |   Role


Answer

Answer: 1-key, 2-trends, 3-staff, 4-role, 5-found



A Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

The first printed books began to (1) during the second quarter of the 15th century. The earliest examples were put together in a number of different ways, sometimes leaving space for decorations and ornate capitals to be (2) by miniaturist painters, and sometimes containing handwritten text alongside printed illustrations. Most of them had texts and pictures printed (3) from woodblocks, which is how they got the name “block-books”. Printing was normally done on separate leaves which were then bound together in book form.
The obvious advantage of having printed text and visual images together on one sheet was quickly grasped by monks, who saw its (4) as a means of spreading knowledge, and as an economic and effective way to get their message across to a wide audience. The monasteries, however, by no means had a monopoly on the production and sale of woodcut printing; in fact, probably the most profitable area of European printmaking was the production of playing cards.
Nonetheless, the content of most surviving block-books is essentially biblical. The purpose of the illustrations was functional: to make the meaning of the stories as clear and as understandable as possible to those who were unable to read the often difficult text. It was also a result of the need to (5) the stories that the characters were presented in contemporary clothes and the illustrations contained details of ordinary life in the late Middle Ages.



Answer

Answer: 1-appear, 2-added, 3-entirely, 4-potential, 5-popularize



B Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.

For copyright purposes, a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work must be original and it must be set down in some (1) form, for example, on paper, computer disk, or on audio or video tape. It is not unusual for people to have the same idea at roughly the same time, but copyright applies in the way an idea is expressed, not in the idea itself. This is because ideas can encompass a wide range of concepts: for example, thousands of books and films have the same basic
(2) - boy meets girl, loses girl, gets girl back, good triumphs over evil, and so on. So ideas, as opposed to the way in which they are expressed, cannot be protected under copyright law. Perhaps oddly, statistical lists and computer programs are also (3) as literary works and therefore come under copyright law.
You are breaking the law when you reproduce the whole or a significant part of someone else’s creation without their permission. This would include, for example, recording a CD or a video, putting on a public (4) of a play, making photocopies, or copying onto a computer disk. It is also a breach of the law to key copyright material into a computer without consent, as is storing it on the computer memory. This can even apply to a small part of a work if the
(5) is considered to be essential.



Answer

Answer: 1-permanent, 2-plots, 3-regarded, 4-performance, 5-content



C Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate Answer choice for each blank.

In prehistoric times, Europe was (1) with vast primeval woods and forests, which must have deeply influenced the minds as well as the lives of our ancestors. In places where they had not made clearings, they must have lived in a constant half-light. As far as we know, the oak was the commonest and most
(2) tree. We get our evidence partly from the statements of some classical writers, but more convincingly from the
(3) of ancient villages built on wooden piles in lakes and from the oak forests which have been found embedded in peat bogs.
These bogs, which are most evident in northern Europe, but which are also found in some central and southern parts of the continent, have (4) the plants and trees which flourished after the end of the Ice Age. The great peat bogs of Ireland reveal that there was a time when vast woods of oak and yew covered the country, the oak growing on hills that were up to a height of four hundred feet or so above the sea, while the yew grew at higher (5) . Ancient roadways made of oak have been found, as have, more famously, human relics.



Answer

Answer: 1-covered, 2-useful, 3-remains, 4-preserved, 5-levels



D Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

A rule of thumb for distinguishing butterflies from moths in this country is to examine the antennae or feelers, although, when comparing Lepidoptera worldwide, this technique is not to be relied on. Generally, especially among those native to the UK, butterflies have clubbed feelers, (1) moths can have feelers of various kinds other than clubbed. There are moths that fly by day and the more brightly colored of them are sometimes (2) for butterflies, but their feelers will distinguish them.
Variations within a single species of butterfly often occur, and all kinds are (3) to vary in their tint or markings, or sometimes both. These variations may at times be so (4) as to be hardly noticeable, but in a fair proportion, the variation is quite striking. In such cases, unless the difference is extreme, it is possible to track all the intermediate stages between the ordinary form of a species and its most extreme variety. The coloring on the underside of a butterfly differs from that of the upper side and matches, or (5) in with, its natural habitat to a remarkable degree. This is why, when they settle, you can see them with their wings positioned together upright over their back. The number of known species of butterflies throughout the world has been put at about thirteen thousand or more, but some believe there are several thousand more species as yet undiscovered.



Answer

Answer: 1-whereas, 2-mistaken, 3-liable, 4-slight, 5-blends





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