IELTS MASTER | Test10 Reading

Reading

Multiple choice, choose single Answer

A Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

By the 15th century, the various Zulu chiefdoms had reached the south-eastern part of Southern Africa. They were largely cattle farmers and cultivators who lived in scattered villages across the land. Like other African peoples at this time, they lived within a system of clans and tribes under independent chiefs until, in the latter part of the 18th century, the system changed, possibly due to land shortage, and a number of larger political groupings were formed. The most powerful among these were the Mthethwa under the leadership of Dingiswayo, who radically changed some aspects of traditional life during his reign.
Formerly, military activity was based on local recruitment; men from a district would fight together under their chief. So, in order to create a large unified fighting force and control the fierce rivalry between supporters of different groups, Dingiswayo reorganized his army along the lines of age rather than old local allegiances. Thus, men of a particular age group, regardless of clan or residence, formed a regiment whose loyalty was to the king alone. Fathers and sons fought in different regiments and men from the same district found themselves in completely different groups, and as a result local rivalry was prevented. This was the basic military system that Shaka, the most famous Zulu chief, inherited and built on.

Which of the following is mentioned as one of the changes made to the Zulus’ traditional life?


Answer

Answer: 3

B Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

The Second World War brought a period of austerity and tough rationing in Britain, especially for food: before the war Britain had imported about 55 million tons of food, but, only a month after the war began, this had dropped to 12 million. Strangely enough, this period also saw a general improvement in health standards across the country. Rationing began at the beginning of 1940 and lasted until July 1954 when the last restrictions on meat were lifted.
Everyone was issued with an identity card and each household had a ration book. Then they had to register with a local supplier of food whose name was stamped in the ration book so that you could only buy your ration from that supplier, and only the amount you were allowed. The books contained coupons which the shopkeepers cut out every time you made a purchase, and the amount you were allowed depended, to a certain extent, on the color of your ration book. The majority of adults had a buff or brownish book. Then there was the green book for pregnant women, nursing mothers and children under five, and this allowed them first choice of fruit, a daily pint of milk and a double supply of eggs. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 had a blue book, which allowed them fruit, a full meat ration and half a pint of milk a day.
The idea was to make as sure as possible that everybody got a fair share of the food available, the worry being that as food and other consumer goods became scarcer, prices would rise and the less well-off might not be able to pay. However, some thought it unfair, as people living in rural areas could get hold of eggs, butter and milk fairly easily without coupons.

According to the text, which of the following statements is true?


Answer

Answer: 4



Multiple choice, choose multiple Answer

A Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

Why do some countries drive on the left, while others - the majority - drive on the right? In fact, those that drive on the left make up about twenty-five per cent of the world's countries and are, apart from the UK itself, mostly countries drat were British colonies: India, South Africa, Singapore, Jamaica, and so on. Japan does too, although it wasn’t a colony, and as late as 2009, Samoa switched from driving on the right largely because they wanted to buy right-hand drive cars made in Japan and New Zealand.
The Romans introduced the custom of keeping to the left, a habit that was reinforced in medieval times when riders throughout Europe passed oncoming strangers sword arm to sword arm - this idea is based on the tact that the majority of people are right-handed. An increase in horse traffic towards the end of the 18'” century meant that the convention gained strength, but it was not put into law until 1835. Legend has it that Napoleon is responsible for making the European countries which he conquered keep to the light, for the simple reason either that he was left-handed himself, or that he wanted to be different from his enemy, England. This is most probably nonsense, but an Emperor’s whims can go a long way. So France, obviously, and Spain, the Netherlands and other countries Napoleon overran used this system, and over the years other countries adopted the practice to make crossing borders easier and safer. The latest European country to convert was Sweden, in 1967.

According to the text, which of the countries listed below drive on the left?


Answer

Answer: 1, 2, 4, 5



B Read the text and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

In 1861, Matthew Brady, a well-known portrait photographer, approached President Lincoln requesting permission to move freely about the country photographing the Civil War. Lincoln granted him permission to travel anywhere with the Union armies, and his record of this conflict brought home to millions the horrors of war.
Brady wasn’t the first official war photographer. Six years earlier, Roger Fenton, a lawyer and amateur photographer, had returned from the Crimea, having been personally chosen by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. However, his instructions were more likely to have been to send back work that boosted morale back home rather than the terrible realities of war.
Brady’s coverage of the war made him a household name, hut he had hundreds of assistants, and it’s even possible that he didn’t take any of the 7,000 pictures that were marketed under his name. But no one else could have organized the large army of photographers needed to cover the broad sweep of the war and provided access to many leading generals and politicians.

Which of the following statements are true of Matthew Brady?


Answer

Answer: 1, 2, 4



Re-order Paragraphs

A The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.

Jumbled paragraphs Correct paragraph order (1-4)
A One of the Tibetan names for this mountain translates as “Mountain So High That No Bird Can Fly Over It”. It was first measured in 1852 and was called Peak XV until 1865, when it was named after the British Surveyor of India, Sir George Everest.
B About 200 million years ago, the Indian subcontinent broke away from a vast southern super-continent called Gondwanaland. It drifted north-east across the sea and collided with the Asian landmass. These two huge landmasses buckled, rather like cars in a head-on collision, and rose up to form the world’s tallest mountain.
C Mapping the Himalayas and Everest wasn’t easy. Foreigners were not welcome, so Himalayan traders were recruited to infiltrate the area and gather enough information to allow accurate maps to be made.
D Fossilized fish remains have been found high up on the slopes of Everest proving that the world’s highest mountain once lay at the bottom of the sea. How did this happen?


Answer

Answer: 1-d, 2-b, 3-a, 4-c



B The paragraphs have been placed in a random order. Restore the original order.

Jumbled paragraphs Correct paragraph order (1-4)
A At the turn of the 19th century, however, only a relatively small sector of the British economy had been directly affected by the Industrial Revolution.
B For each of the three major countries of western Europe - Britain, France, and Germany - the closing decades of the 18lh century were years of increasing economic prosperity, and the pace of economic development in Britain far outdid that of the others.
C It would be a mistake to call the other two countries underdeveloped - in terms of cultural achievement, especially literature, art, and philosophy, they outstripped Britain - but they lagged behind in terms of economic development.
D Even two decades later, the picture was little different, except that cotton had become the country's leading manufacturing industry. It was not until the middle of the century that it could be properly described as an industrial society.


Answer

Answer: 1-b, 2-a, 3-d, 4-c



Fill In The Blanks

A In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

Considering their lingering reputation as man-killers it’s hardly surprising that hackles are raised any time someone brings up the idea of (1) . Wolves to Scottish Highlands. Debate on this topic has been raging for years (2) would like to see the Highland environment returned to its natural state. Opponents(3) the animals’ (4) for killing livestock.

Proponents     |   Reacquainting     |   Propensity     |   Reintroducing     |   Cite     |   Activists     |   Accuse


Answer

Answer: 1-reintroducing, 2-proponents, 3-cite, 4-propensity



B In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

A charge often leveled against organic agriculture is that it is more philosophy than science. There is some truth to the indictment if that is what it is , though why organic farmers should feel (1) about it is itself a mystery, a relic perhaps of our fetishism of science as the only (2) Tool with which to approach nature. The philosophy of (3) . Natural processes precedes the science of understanding them.

Supportive     |   Mimicking     |   Logic     |   Repeating     |   Credible     |   Defensive


Answer

Answer: 1-defensive, 2-credible, 3-mimicking



C In the text below some words are missing. Choose the correct word to fill each blank from the box below. There are more words than you need to complete the exercise.

Our programme will develop your (1) knowledge of Computer Science and your problem solving and (2) skills, while enabling you to achieve the (3) qualification for the IT professional. The programme structure is extremely
(4) enabling you to personalize your MSc through a wide range of electives.

Ultimate     |   Variable     |   Analytical     |   Flexible     |   Theoretical     |   Considerable     |   Decisive


Answer

Answer: 1-theoratical, 2-analytical, 3-ultimate, 4-flexible



A Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

Peering into the future seldom produces a clear picture. But this is not the (1) with bio-energy. Its long-term impacts on the global economy appear to be pretty clear, making many long-term predictions quite compelling, including the demise of the price-setting power of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and the end of agricultural protectionism First, technology is (2) to deliver a biofuel that will be competitive with fossil energy at something like current prices It probably already has Brazil has been exporting ethanol to the US at an average delivery price of $145 for an amount with the energy equivalence of a gallon of petrol. It is doing so profitably and in increasing amounts, in spite of a 54 cents a gallon tariff to protect American maize-based ethanol
(3) Many countries are following suit. But ethanol is an inconvenient chemical compound that is corrosive and soluble in water, thus limiting its immediate market to that of a gasoline additive However, this is just the Betamax phase of the industry. There is plenty of private venture capital money being
(4) into finding more efficient ways of extracting energy from biomass and delivering it to transport and power systems Over time, the technology will also become more flexible, allowing more crops to be used as feedstock, not just the current choice of sugarcane, maize and palm oil New technologies will be able to extract energy from cellulose, allowing the use of pastures such as switch grass as well as the refuse of current food production.



Answer

Answer: 1-circumstances, 2-bound, 3-producers, 4-poured



B Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

Bamboo is a favoured plant among architects and designers because of its incredible strength and durability. One Colombian architect (1) to it as nature's steel, but in many respects it is even better than steel: it is lighter and more flexible, and these (2) make it the ideal building material in areas that suffer earthquakes and severe weather patterns. Construction workers in places such as Hong Kong rely on bamboo scaffolding whatever the
(3) of the tower block they may be working on; over a billion people around the world live in a home that is made of bamboo; and China
(4) the plant for thousands of years. The only drawback to this remarkable product is the cost of transporting it. So for those
(5) live in cooler regions of the world, the enormous advantages of this natural building material are less accessible.



Answer

Answer: 1-refers, 2-qualities, 3-height, 4-has cultivated, 5-who



C Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

Sixty years ago an American sociologist made a distinction between 'private troubles' and 'public issues'. His theory was that (1) there being many 'troubles' or 'problems' that individuals may experience in their lives, not all of these always emerge as 'public issues' which attract general interest, or are seen as requiring public responses or even action. Personal troubles are seen as 'private' and are (2) within households, families or maybe even small communities. On the other hand, 'public issues' are dealt with publicly, through forms of social intervention or regulation, for example. One (3) that distinguishes whether issues or problems are perceived as private or public is number. (4) only a few people experience some form of trouble, then it is highly likely to remain a private matter; whereas when a large number of people begin to experience this same trouble it will quite possibly
(5) a public issue.



Answer

Answer: 1-despite, 2-handled, 3-factor, 4-if, 5-become



D Below is a text with blanks. Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

Throughout history poetry has often been created to celebrate a wedding. This article will examine the ways in (1) this has happened at different periods of time and in many (2) differing societies. It will look at some examples of wedding poems from a range of eras and cultures, and will
(3) them in their specific context, drawing out the particular features that reflect that context. Other writers on this topic have tended to focus on more personal wedding poems, (4) dedicated to the bride or the groom. Here, however, the intention is to consider poems that were written with more of a social purpose (5) mind.



Answer

Answer: 1-which, 2-widely, 3-set, 4-those, 5-in



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