A You will hear a short lecture. Write a summary for a fellow student who was not present at the lecture. You should write 50-70 words.
You will have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points presented in the lecture.
Answer: Some economists argue that financial aid to developing countries is, in the long run, inefficient and even counter-productive. However, there are two main types of aid that we will deal with here. First, there is long-term aid to countries such as Ethiopia and Somalia, where there are recurrent problems such as drought and poor agricultural production, and where (here is little or no industry to speak of - problems that won’t go away with an injection of money. Then there is emergency aid, which also appeals for contributions from the public, when a disaster of one kind or another strikes. Recent examples would be the earthquake in Haiti, and the tsunami in Japan. In the case of emergency aid, it arrives in the first instance as food, clothing, shelter, and medical aid, all of which are of immediate practical use and great benefit. With countries that have long-term developmental problems, just pumping in money is not enough and, sad to say, a lot of the money doesn’t go where it should. What is more important is providing know-how: teaching tire skills and expertise needed to help develop the economy and social services such as health, sanitation, and so on. It is also necessary to help build the institutions - a bureaucracy, if you like - that can organize and run these services.
B You will hear a short lecture. Write a summary for a fellow student who was not present at the lecture. You should write 50-70 words.
You will hear a short lecture. Write a summary for a fellow student who was not present at the lecture. You should write 50-70 words.
Answer: As you have probably noticed, fashions and tastes change quite noticeably over the years, most obviously perhaps in clothes, hairstyles and popular music. The reputations of writers and artists are no different, though the alternating periods of being in and then out of fashion are longer. A poet may no longer appeal to a large reading public for a number of reasons, though we must keep in mind that poetry is a minority taste and its readership is relatively small in the first place.
So, um, I want to look at the reputation of Alexander Pope. In his own lifetime, he was praised and idolized by both his friends and the literary world in general, though he did have some rather vicious enemies. Yet both friends and enemies seemed more concerned with either praising or attacking his character and morals than with properly assessing She poems themselves. The Romantics, of course, had little time for him. Indeed, the Romantic movement, in poetry at least, was an attempt to make a complete break with the strict formality and rationality of the Augustan poets, of whom Pope was the most notable example. They did not regard him as a real poet and complained of his ignorance of nature in the sense of mountains, trees, and flowers.
The Victorians were even less responsive to Pope and this was probably the period when his reputation was at its lowest. In fact, it wasn't until the 1920s that Pope and the Augustan poets were re-evaluated, and given the attention and respect they deserved.
A Listen to the recording and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. You will need to select more than one response.
B Listen to the recording and Answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. You will need to select more than one response.
A You will hear a recording. Write the missing words in each blank.
B You will hear a recording. Write the missing words in each blank.
A You will hear a recording. Choose the paragraph that best relates to the recording.
1 Culture throughout the world plays a mutually beneficial role in the consumer markets of a society. Through culture, consumers are able to identify the products most important to them, and at the same time, culture is able to adapt to what buyers and sellers desire at any given moment.
2 Throughout the many cultures found in the world, consumers have behaved predictably While each society may have different values, the level of consumption as compared to other cultures is relatively equal Globalization ensures that consumers adopt the same process when buying goods and services.
3 The way a consumer buys, uses, and values a product is independent of cultural influence. A consumer may purchase desired products and still practice the beliefs and customs of their culture. Even the organizations responsible for bringing various products to consumers operate without regard to cultural sensitivities.
4 Consumers in different cultures value different things. These values, which can be unique from one culture to the next, impact not only what kinds of products these consumers buy, but also who they buy them from, how they buy them, and for what uses and reasons.
B You will hear a recording. Choose the paragraph that best relates to the recording.
1 Unless major oil consumers invest in exploration now (which would be the first time major funds have been invested since 1964) global oil production will level out and be unable to meet increased demands from India and China.
2 With the continuation of improvements in technology, geology, and with government support, there is little doubt that further major reserves of oil will be found in the near future. This should result in sustainable oil supplies for a further 150 years.
3 While we are not about to run out of oil, we are certainly past the peak of oil production, which occurred about 40 years ago This is despite improvements in technology, geology, and with tax-subsidized investment in exploration.
4 Oil consumption reached its first peak in 1964. Since that time the world has become increasingly dependent on oil it is unlikely that there will be any new major oil discoveries in the immediate future or at any subsequent time.
A Listen to the recording and Answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.
B Listen to the recording and Answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.
A You will hear a recording about the brain. At the end of the recording, the last word or group of words has been replaced by a beep. Select the correct option to complete the recording.
B You will hear a recording about money. At the end of the recording, the last word or group of words has been replaced by a beep. Select the correct option to complete the recording.
A You will hear a recording. Below is a transcription of the recording. Some words in the transcription differ from what the speakers) said. As you listen, circle the words that are different.
When the European Economic Community was established in 1957, its aim was, in broad terms, to move towards closer political and economic co-operation. Today, the much bigger European Union has a far-reaching importance on many aspects of our lives, from the conditions we work under, to the safety standards we must adhere to, and the environment in which we live.
In order to achieve the free flow of goods and services, work and capital between the member countries, they needed to establish mutual politics in areas as diverse as agriculture, transport, and working conditions. When they had agreed on these policies, they became legal. Now, though, the EU is concerned with a far wider range of issues.
B You will hear a recording. Below is a transcription of the recording. Some words in the transcription differ from what the speaker(s) said. As you listen, circle the words that are different.
Stem cells are the body’s master cells, the rare material from which we are built. Unlike normal body cells, they can reproduce an indefinite number of times and, when manipulated in the right way, can turn themselves into any sort of cell in the body. The most versatile stem cells are those found in the embryo at just a few days old. This ball of a few dozen stem cells eventually goes on to form everything that makes up a human.
In 1998, James Thompson pronounced that he had isolated human embryonic stem cells in the laboratory. At last, these powerful cells were within the grip of scientists to experiment with, understand, and develop into fixes for the things that go wrong.
You will hear some sentences. Write each sentence exactly as you hear it. Write as much of each sentence as you can. You will hear each sentence only once.